The New Media and Social Networks as a factor in the process of Radicalization and Normalization of Hate Crimes

  • Lyuba Spasova Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: hate crimes, radicalization, normalization of radicalism, digital technology, new media

Abstract

The article analyzes the processes of radicalization and its expression into hate crimes via the concept of hate and studies the impact of new media and social network on the two phenomena. It is argued that new media and social networks are important factors in the process of normalization of radicalism. Specifics of hate speech are discussed as par excellence techniques of normalization.

References

Bezlov, T. (2013). Doklad: Natsionalno izsledvane na prestapnostta v Bulgaria 2012. [National Presence Survey in Bulgaria 2012]. Tsentar za izsledvane na demokratsiyata. https://csd.bg/publications/publication/countering-organised-crime-in-bulgaria-study-on-the-legal-framework/

Bandura A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and social psychology review,3(3), 193–209. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0303_3

Bartlet, J., Miller, C. (2012). The edge of violence: towards telling the difference between violent and non-violent radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2011.594923

Benesch, S. (2012, January 12). Dangerous speech: a proposal to prevent group violence. World Policy Institute.

http://www.worldpolicy.org/sites/default/files/Dangerous%20Speech%20Guidelines%20Benesch%20January%202012.pdf

Bennett, L., & Segerberg, A. (2013). The logic of connective action: Digital media and the personalisation of contentious politics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Borell. K. (2015). When is the time to hate? A research review on the impact of dramatic events on islamophobia and islamophobic hate crimes in europe. Islam and christian–muslim relations, 26(4), 409-421. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2015.1067063

Borum, R. (2011). Radicalization into violente extremism. A review of social science theories, Journal of strategic security, 4, 7-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-0472.4.4.1

Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, wikipedia, second life, and beyond. From production to produsage. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-8866-0.

Castells, M. (2015). Networks of outrage and hope (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Chakraborti, N. (2015). Re-thinking hate crime: Fresh challenges for policy and practice. Journal of interpersonal violence, 30(10), 1738–1754.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514548581

Couldry, N. (2012). Media, society, world: social theory and digital media practice. Cambridge and Malden: Polity Press.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2010). Violent radicalization in Europe: What we know and what we do not know. Studies in conflict & terrorism, 33(9), 797-814.

https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2010.501423

Deibert, R., & Rohozinski, R. (2012). Liberation vs. control: The future of cyberspace. In L. Diamond, & M. F. Plattner (Eds.), Liberation technology: social media and the struggle for democracy (pp. 18–32). Baltimore, CA: John Hopkins University Press.

Deloughery, K., King, R. Asal, V. (2012). Close cousins or distant relatives? The Relationship between terrorism and hate crime. Crime & Delinquency, 58(5), 663–688. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128712452956

Emerson, E. (1992). What is normalisation? In H. Brown and H. Smith (Eds.), Normalisation: A Reader for the nineties. London: Routledge

FRA. (2012a). Making hate crime visible in the European Union: acknowledging victims’ rights. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

FRA. (2012b). Factsheet: hate crime in the European Union. Luxembourg: Publications Office

FRA. (2013). FRA brief: Crimes motivated by hatred and prejudice in the EU. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

Garland, J., Chakraborti, N. (2012). Divided by a common concept? Assessing the implications of different conceptualizations of hate crime in the European Union. European Journal of Criminology, 9(1), 38–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370811421645

Gerbaudo, P. (2012). Tweets and the streets: Social media and contemporary activism. London: Pluto Press.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. New York, NY, et al: Harper & Row.

Hate crimes in the osce region: incidents and responses. Annual reports and data. (2009). OSCE. http://hatecrime.osce.org/

Herek, G., Cogan, J. C., Gillis, J. R. (2002). Victim experiences in hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Journal of social issues, 58, 319-339. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00263

Jacobs, J. (2002). Hate Crime: Criminal law and identity politics. Theoretical Criminology, 6(4), 481-484. https://doi.org/10.1177/136248060200600406

Kressel, N. (2002). Mass hate: The global rise of genocide and terror (Revised and Updated). New York: Plenum Press

Krueger, A., Malečková, J. (2002). The economics and the education of suicide bombers: Does poverty cause terrorism? The new republic, 27-33.

Lawrence, F. (1999). Punishing hate: bias crimes under american law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Leader Maynard, J. and Benesch, S. (2016). Dangerous speech and dangerous ideology: an integrated model for monitoring and prevention. Genocide studies and prevention. An International Journal, 9(3), 70-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1911-9933.9.3.1317

Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G. (2004). Why we hate. New York: Prometheus Books.

Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G. (2009). Hate as cultural justification for violence. In B. Levin (Ed.), Hate crimes: understanding and defining hate crime. (pp. 41-53). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Mandel, D. (2009). Radicalization: What does it mean? In T. Pick, & A. Speckhard (Eds.), Indigenous terrorism: understanding and addressing the root causes of radicalization among groups with an immigrant heritage in europe.(pp.101-113). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Matza, D. (2010). Becoming deviant. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

McCauley, C., Moskalenko, S. (2008). Mechanisms of political radicalization. Pathways toward terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(3), 415-433. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546550802073367

Measham, F., Newcombe, R., Parker, H. (1994). The normalization of recreational drug use amongst young people in north-west england. British Journal of Sociology, 45(2), 287-312. DOI: 10.2307/591497

Missing the point. Lack of adequate investigation of hate crimes in Bulgaria. (2015). Amnesty International. Index: EUR 15/001/2015

https://www.amnestyusa.org/files/missing_the_point_-_final_version_en_for_print.pdf

Nirje, B. (1980). The Normalisation principle. In R. Flynn and K. Nitsch (Eds), Normalisation, social integration and community services. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Obshtestveni naglasi spryamo rechta na omrazata v Bulgaria (2016, July 27). [Public Attitudes Toward Hate Speech in Bulgaria in 2016]. OSI Sofia. https://osis.bg/?p=501

Parker, H., Aldridge, J. and Measham, F.(1998). Illegal leisure: The normalization of adolescent recreational drug use. London: Routledge.

Perry, B. (2001). In the name of hate: understanding hate crimes. New York: Routledge.

Perry, B. (2009). The sociology of hate: Theoretical approaches. In B. Levin (Ed.), Hate crimes: understanding and defining hate crime. (pp. 54-77). Westport CT: Praeger.

Perry, B. (2014b). Exploring the community impacts of hate crime. In N. Hall, A. Corb, P. Giannasi and J. Grieve (Eds.). The International handbook of hate crime. London: Routledge.

Royzman, E., McCauley, C., Rozin P.(2004). From Plato to Putnam: four ways of thinking about hate. In Robert J. Sternberg. (Ed.), Psychology of hate. (pp. 3–35). Washington, D.C.: APA Books.

Sternberg, R. J. (2003). A duplex theory of hate: Development and application to terrorism, massacres, and genocide. Review of General Psychology. 7(3), 299–328. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.7.3.299

Sternberg, R. J. (2005). Understanding and combating hate. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The psychology of hate (pp. 37–49). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2008). The nature of hate. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sykes, G., Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American sociological review, 22(6), 664-670. https://doi.org/10.2307/2089195

Tileagă, C. (2007). Ideologies of moral exclusion: A critical discursive reframing of depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization. British journal of social psychology,46(4), 717–737. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466607X186894

Gagliardone, I. , Gal, D., Alves, T., Martinez, G. (2015). Countering online hate speech. UNESCO Publishing. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000233231

Walters, M. A. (2011). A general theories of hate crime? Strain, doing difference and self control.Critical Criminology, 19(4), 313-330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-010-9128-2

Wojcieszak, M. & Price, V. (2009). What underlies the false consensus effect? How personal opinion and disagreement affect public opinion perception. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 21. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edp001

Wojcieszak, М. Е. (2011). Computer-mediated false consensus: radical online groups, social networks and news media. Mass communication and society, 14(4), 527-546. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2010.513795

Yanagizawa-Drott, D. (2012). Propaganda and conflict. Theory and evidence from the Rwandan genocide. CID Working Paper No. 257.

Published
2017-12-01
How to Cite
Spasova, L. (2017). The New Media and Social Networks as a factor in the process of Radicalization and Normalization of Hate Crimes. Postmodernism Problems, 7(3), 235-249. Retrieved from https://www.pmpjournal.org/index.php/pmp/article/view/37