Attitudes of Graphic Designers and Copywriters in Bulgaria Towards Artificial Intelligence

Keywords: digitization, artificial intelligence, graphic designers, copywriters, creativity, work, labour, tasks


Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the core technologies of the digital transformation. It is expected to lead to job losses, initially in occupations characterised by routine activities, but increasingly in creative professions. This chapter analyses the results of an empirical survey of graphic designers and copywriters in Bulgaria on their attitudes towards AI as well as their views on its future influence on their professions. The majority do not perceive AI and automation as a threat. In their view, digital technologies and artificial intelligence are a favourable opportunity for professionals that will change their work by taking away routine tasks and leaving creative activities to humans alone. Graphic designers and copywriters will engage in creative work, and their work will become more in demand because it is human. The analysis of the study shows that pessimistic scenarios of massive job destruction may not hold true. Expectations of deterioration in the quality of work (Holtgrewe, 2014) as a result of digitalization are also not borne out. This study is the first of its kind in this country to explore creative professions and their attitudes towards AI.


Bringhurst, R. (2004). The elements of typographic style (3rd ed.). Hartley & Marks, Publishers.

Dabner, D., Stewart, S., & Vickress, A. (2017). Graphic Design School: The Principles and Practice of Graphic Design, John Wiley & Sons.

Dent, T. C. (2020). Creative and Cultural Workforce in Europe Statistics Report. DISCE Publications.

Dent, T., Comunian, R., Conor, B., Pica V., Wilson N. and Burlina, C. (2020). Creative and cultural workforce in Europe Statistics Report. DISCE Publications. DISCE-Report-D3.2.b.pdf

Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2017). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerization? Oxford Martin Programme on Technology and Employment. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.019

Graetz, G., & Michaels, G. (2018). Robots at Work. IZA Discussion Paper No. 8938.

Holtgrewe, U. (2014). New New Technologies: The Future and the Present of Work in Information and Communication Technology.29(1):. New Technology, Work and Employment, 29(1), 9–24.

Kabilka, R. (2020). Algorithm-driven graphic design. Praha.

Kirov, V., & Malamin, B. (2022). Are translators afraid of artificial intelligence? Societies, 12 (2), 70. doi:

Kirov, V., & Yordanova, G. (2020). The role of working through online platforms for work-parenting balance in the ICT sector in Bulgaria. [Rolyata na rabotata prez onlaĭn platformi za balansa mezhdu rabota i roditelstvo v sektora na IKT v Bŭlgaria.]. Sociological Problems, (1), 277-300.

Kirov, V., & Malamin, B. (2020). Shte otneme li izkustveniyat intelekt rabotata na prevodachite? [Will AI take translators' jobs?]. Sotsiologicheski problemi, (2), 511-533

Lupton, E., & Phillips, J. C. (2015). Graphic design: The new basics. Princeton Architectural Press.

Lysakowski, L. (2017). Automation of design. Извлечено от

Malmelin N, V. M. (2017). Media work in change: Understanding the role of media professionals in times of digital transformation and convergence. Sociology Compass, 11(7) :e12494 DOI:10.1111/soc4.12494

Manyika, J., Chui, M., Miremadi, M., Bughin, J., George, K., Willmott, P., & Dewhurst, M. (2017). A future that works: automation, employment, and productivity. McKinsey Global Institute.

McDonald, K. M. (1999). The sociology of the professions. London: Sage.

Meil, P., & Kirov, V. (2017). Policy implications of virtual work. Palmgrave.

Moorkens, J. (2017). Under pressure: translation in times of austerity. Perspectives, 25(3), 464-477. DOI:10.1080/0907676X.2017.1285331

Salomons, A., Gregory, T., & Zierahn, U. (January 2019 r.). Racing with or against the machine? Evidence from Europe. CESifo Working Paper No. 7247.

Susskind, R. &. (2017). The future of the professions: How technology will transform the work of human experts. Oxford. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

How to Cite
Malamin, B. (2024). Attitudes of Graphic Designers and Copywriters in Bulgaria Towards Artificial Intelligence. Postmodernism Problems, 14(1), 55-73.